Information about the author:
Lidya A. Spiridonova
Lidya A. Spiridonova, DSc in Philology, Professor, A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Povarskaya 25 a, 121069 Moscow, Russia.
In 1932 the party ideologues at the behest of Stalin announced Gorky “founder of socialist realism”. This definition turned into an ideological stamp, accompanied by writer’s still disturbing to see the writer not only a classic of Soviet literature, but a talented and innovative artist, who all his life sought to create a new method in Russian literature. Considering the classical realism outdated, Gorky already at the beginning of the twentieth century wrote about the necessity of art, which would consider life from the height of the ideals of the future. Starting with the story Mother (1906), he sought to implement the synthesis of the artistic consciousness of the socialist ideal, which he conceived as a way of the harmonik dispensation of the new world. In Tales about Italy and autobiographical trilogy (My Childhood, In the World, My Universities) dream of Gorky about the upcoming fair and reasonable life under socialism is expressed through the synthesis of realism and romantism. In the last years of his life, speaking in journalistic articles with propaganda method of “social realism”, Gorky do not create no one work according its dogmatical principles, which formed after the death of writer.
Keywords: Gorky, Stalin, socialistic realism, synthesis, realism, modernism.